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Theism and Atheism


Even though Catholics and Protestants are nowadays both on the defensive, theism is again becoming an actual force in the period of its decline.  This follows from the very meaning of “atheism.”  Only those who used “atheism” as a term of abuse meant by it the exact opposite of religion.  Those who professed themselves to be atheists at a time when religion was still in power tended to identify themselves more deeply with the theistic commandment to love one’s neighbor and indeed all created things than most adherents and fellow-travelers of the various denominations.  Such selflessness, such a sublimation of self-love into love of others had its origin in Europe in the Judaeo-Christian idea that truth, love and justice were one, an idea which found expression in the teachings of the Messiah.  The necessary connection between the theistic tradition and the overcoming of self-seeking becomes very much clearer to a reflective thinker of our time than it was to the critics of religion in bygone days.  Besides, what is called “theism” here has very little in common with the philosophical movement of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which went by that name.  That movement was mostly an attempt to reconcile the concept of God with the new science of nature in a plausible manner.  The longing for something other than this world, the standing-apart from existing conditions played only a subordinate part in it and mostly no part at all.  The meanings of the two concepts do not remain unaffected by history, and their changes are infinitely varied.  At a time when both the national socialists and the nationalistic communists despised the Christian faith, a man like Robespierre, the disciple of Rousseau, but not a man like Voltaire, would also have become an atheist and declared nationalism as a religion.  Nowadays atheism is in fact the attitude of those who follow whatever power happens to be dominant, no matter whether they pay lip-service to a religion or whether they can afford to disavow it openly.  On the other hand, those who resist the prevailing wind are trying to hold on to what was once the spiritual basis of the civilization to which they still belong.  This is hardly what the philosophical “theists” had in mind: the conception of a divine guarantor of the laws of nature.  It is on the contrary the thought of something other than the world, something over which the fixed rules of nature, the perennial source of doom, have no dominion.

Max Horkheimer (14 February 1895 – 7 July 1973) was a German philosopher and sociologist, a member of the Frankfurt School of social research.  The text above is the last paragraph of “Theism and Atheism” (Critique of Instrumental Reason, Continuum 1974 — published in German in 1967).  The rest of “Theism and Atheism” may be read at <>.

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