Approved by the Constituent Cortes on 31 October 1978,
Reformed by Markets in 2011
Juan Ramón Mora is a cartoonist in Barcelona. This cartoon was first published in his blog on 30 August 2011 under a Creative Commons license. Translation by Yoshie Furuhashi (@yoshiefuruhashi | yoshie.furuhashi [at] gmail.com). Cf. “Folletos para imprimir y difundir con información sobre la reforma de la Constitución” (#Acampadasol, 29 August 2011); “Spain’s biggest unions called Monday for a ‘major demonstration’ in Madrid on September 6 against plans to enshrine balanced budget rules in the constitution. Leaders of the two main unions, the Labour Union (CCOO) and General Workers Union (UGT), also called for protests across Spain on Wednesday and Thursday to reject the reform and demand a referendum. Fixing a deficit limit in the constitution would be a ‘serious limitation on the overall self government of the country,’ Ramon Gorriz, secretary of union action for the CCOO, told a news conference” (“Spanish Unions Call Protest over Budget Law,” AFP, 29 August 2011).