| Billboard for the Metabolic Rift exhibition tour a reimagined version of the iconic experimental music festival Berlin Atonal | MR Online Billboard for the Metabolic Rift exhibition tour, a reimagined version of the iconic experimental music festival, Berlin Atonal. Image credit: Kana Miyazawa, “The full story of Metabolic Rift: A new format of underground culture of Berlin Atonal,” Tokion, December 16, 2021.

Metabolic Rift: A Selected Bibliography



| Marxs Ecology Materialism and Nature | MR Online

John Bellamy Foster, Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000).

  1. Angus, Ian. 2016. Facing the Anthropocene: Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System. New York: Monthy Review Press.
  2. Angus, Ian. 2017. A Redder Shade of Green: Intersections of Science and Socialism. New York: Monthy Review Press.
  3. Angus, Ian. 2023. The War Against the Commons: Dispossession and Resistance in the Making of Capitalism. New York: Monthy Review Press.
  4. Brockington, Dan, Rosaleen Duffy, and Jim Igoe. 2008. Nature Unbound: Conservation, Capitalism and the Future of Protected Areas. London: Earthscan.
  5. Burkett, Paul. 1999. Marx and Nature: A Red and Green Perspective. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  6. Burkett, Paul. 2006. Marxism and Ecological Economics. Boston: Brill.
  7. Carolan, Michael S. 2013. Society and the Environment: Pragmatic Solutions to Ecological Issues. Boulder: Westview Press.
  8. Carolan, Michael. 2012. The Sociology of Food and Agriculture. New York: Routledge.
  9. Chen Xueming.* 2017. The Ecological Crisis and the Crisis of Capital. Boston: Brill.
  10. Clayton, Philip, and Justin Heinzekehr. 2014. Organic Marxism: An Alternative to Capitalism and Ecological Catastrophe. Claremont, CA: Process Century Press.
  11. Davis, Mike. 2018. Old Gods and New Enigmas. London” Verso.
  12. Dickens, Peter. 2004. Society and Nature: Toward Green Social Theory. London: Polity.
  13. Empson, Martin. 2014. Land and Labour: Marxism, Ecology, and Human HistoryLondon: Bookmarks Publications
  14. Flaherty, Eoin. 2019. Complexity and Resilience in the Social and Ecological SciencesLondon: Palgrave Macmillan.
  15. Foster, John Bellamy. 2000. Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  16. Foster, John Bellamy. 2009. The Ecological Revolution: Making Peace with the Planet. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  17. Foster, John Bellamy. 2020. The Return of Nature: Socialism and Ecology (New York: Monthly Review Press).
  18. Foster, John Bellamy. 2022. Capitalism in the Anthropocene: From Ecological Ruin to Ecological Revolution. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  19. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2020. The Robbery of Nature: Capitalism and the Ecological Rift. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  20. Foster, John Bellamy, and Paul Burkett. 2016. Marx and the Earth: An Anti-Critique. Brill.
  21. Foster, John Bellamy, Brett Clark, and Richard York. 2010. The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  22. Graham, Nicholas. 2020. Forces of Production, Climate Chancge and Canadian Fossil Capitalism. Chicago: Haymarket.
  23. Heynen, Nik, Maria Kaika, and Erik Swyngedouw. 2006. In the Nature of Cities: Urban Political Ecology and the Politics of Urban Metabolism. New York: Routledge.
  24. Holleman, Hannah. 2018. Dust Bowls of Empire: Imperialism, Environmental Politics, and the Injustice of “Green” Capitalism. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  25. Hudson, Mark. 2011. Fire Management in the American West: Forest Politics and the Rise of Megafires. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
  26. Klein, Naomi. 2019. On Fire: The (Burning) Case for a Green New Deal. New York; Simon and Schuster.
  27. Koch, Max. 2011. Capitalism and Climate Change: Theoretical Discussion, Historical Development and Policy Responses. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.
  28. Longo, Stefano B, Rebecca Clausen, and Brett Clark. 2015. The Tragedy of the Commodity.
  29. Magdoff, Fred and Chris Williams. 2017. Creating an Ecological Society: Toward a Revolutionary Transformation. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  30. Magdoff, Fred and John Bellamy Foster. 2010. What Every Environmentalist Needs to Know About Capitalism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  31. Malm, Andreas. 2016. Fossil Capital. London: Verso.
  32. Malm, Andreas. 2018. The Progress of This Storm: Nature and Society in a Warming World. London: Verso.
  33. Moore, Jason W. 2015. Capitalism in the Web of Life. London: Verso.
  34. Odih, Pamela. 2014. Watersheds in Marxist Ecofeminism. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
  35. Patterson, Thomas Carl. 2003. Marx’s Ghost Conversations with Archaeologists. New York: Berg.
  36. Saito, Kohei. 2017. Karl Marx’s Ecosocialism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  37. Saito, Kohei. 2022. Marx in the Anthropocene: Towards the Idea of Degrowth Communism. London: Verso.
  38. Sasaki, Ryuji. 2021. A New Introduction to Karl Marx: New Materialism, Critique of Political Economy, and the Concept of Metabolism. Cham: Palgrave.
  39. Salleh, Ariel. 2009. Eco-Sufficiency and Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology. London: Pluto Press.
  40. Urry, John. 2011. Climate Change and Society. Cambridge: Polity.
  41. Wallis, Victor. 2018. Red-Green Revolution. Toronto: Political Animal Pres.
  42. Wark, McKenzie. 2015. Molecular Red. New York: Verso.
  43. Weston, Del. The Political Economy of Global Warming. Routledge, 2014.


  1. Angus, Ian, 2018. “Marx and Metabolism: Lost in Translation,” Climate and Capitalism, May 1.
  2. Angus, Ian. 2018. “Cesspools, Sewage, and Social Murder: Environmental Crisis and Metabolic Rift in Nineteenth Century London.” Monthly Review 70, no. 3 (July-August): 1-20.
  3. Angus, Ian. 2019. “Superbugs in the Anthropocene: A Profit-Driven Plague,” Monthly Review 71, no. 2 (June): 1-28.
  4. Angus, Ian. 2023. “The Fishing Revolution” Monthly Review 74 (10): 1-26.
  5. Auerbach, Daniel, and Brett Clark. 2018. “Metabolic Rifts, Temporal Imperatives, and Geographical Shifts: Logging in the Adirondack Forest in the 1800s,” International Critical Thought 8, no. 3: 468-486.
  6. Austin, Kelly and Brett Clark. 2012. “Tearing Down Mountains: Using Spatial and Metabolic Analysis to Investigate the Socio-Ecological Contradictions of Coal Extraction in Appalachia,” Critical Sociology 38 (3): 437–57.
  7. Bahers, Jean-Baptiste, and Giula Giacche. 2019. “Towards a Metabolic Rift Analysis: Urban Agriculture and Organic Waste Management in Rennes (France),” 98 (January): 97-107.
  8. Battistoni, Alyssa. 2014. “Nature’s Metropolis.” Jacobin, no. 15–16: 103–9.
  9. Betancourt, Mauricio. 2020. “The Effect of Cuban Agroecology in Mitigating the Metabolic Rift: A Quantitative Approach to Latin Amercian Food Production,” Global Environmental Change 63: 1-10. (Published July 2020.)
  10. Burkett, Paul, and John Bellamy Foster. 2006. “Metabolism, Energy, and Entropy in Marx’s Critique of Political Economy: Beyond the Podolinsky Myth.” Theory and Society 35 (1): 109–156.
  11. Bush, Sasha Breger. 2020. “Opioid Ontopolitics: Industrial Capitalism, Metabolic Rift, and the Power of Things.” International Journal of Drug Policy 82 (Published August 2020).
  12. Cable, Kele. 2019. “Climate Change, Dust Bowls, Fishery Collapse: Metabolic Rifts of Capitalism and the Need for Socialism,” Medium.com, February 14.
  13. Campbell, H. 2009. “Breaking New Ground in Food Regime Theory: Corporate Environmentalism, Ecological Feedbacks and the ‘Food from Somewhere’ Regime?Agriculture and Human Values, 26(4): 309–19.
  14. Clark, Brett, Daniel Auerbach, and Karen Xuan Zhang. 2018. “The Du Bois Nexus: Intersectionality, Political Economy, and Environmental Injustice in the Peruvian Guano Trade in the 1800s.” Environmental Sociology 4 (1): 54-66.
  15. Clark, Brett and Rebecca Clausen. 2008. “The Oceanic Crisis: Capitalism and the Degradation of Marine Ecosystems.” Monthly Review 60(3): 91-111.
  16. Clark, Brett, and John Bellamy Foster. 2009. “Ecological Imperialism and the Global Metabolic Rift.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50 (3–4) (May 20): 311–334.
  17. Clark, Brett and John Bellamy Foster. 2010. “Marx’s Ecology in the Twenty-First Century.” World Review of Political Economy 1(1): 142-156.
  18. Clark, Brett and Stefano B. Longo. 2018. “Land-Sea Ecological Rifts: A Metabolic Analysis of Nutrient Loading,”Monthly Review 70(3): 106-21.
  19. Clark, Brett and Richard York. 2008. “Rifts and Shifts: Getting to the Root of Environmental Crises.” Monthly Review 60(6): 13-24.
  20. Clark, Brett and John Bellamy Foster. 2010. “The Dialectic of Social and Ecological Metabolism: Marx, Mészáros, and the Absolute Limits of Capital.” Socialism and Democracy 24(2): 124-138.
  21. Clark, Brett, and Richard York. 2005. “Carbon Metabolism: Global Capitalism, Climate Change, and the Biospheric Rift.” Theory and Society 34 (4): 391–428.
  22. Clausen, Rebecca. 2007. “Healing the Rift.” Monthly Review 59(1): 40–52.
  23. Clausen, Rebecca and Brett Clark. 2005.  “The Metabolic Rift and Marine Ecology: An Analysis of the Ocean Crisis Within Capitalist Production.” Organization & Environment 18 (4): 422–44.
  24. Clausen, Rebecca, Brett Clark, and Stefano B Longo. 2015. “Metabolic Rifts and Restoration: Agricultural Crises and the Potential of Cuba’s Organic, Socialist Approach to Food Production.” World Review of Political Economy 6 (1): 4–32. doi:10.13169/worlrevipoliecon.6.1.0004.
  25. Clement, Matthew T. 2009. “A Basic Accounting of Variation in Municipal Solid‐Waste Generation at the County Level in Texas, 2006.” Rural Sociology 74 (3): 412–429.
  26. Clow, Michael and D. McLauchlin, “Healing the Metabolic Rift Between Farming and the Ecosystem: Challenges Farmers in Canada and Sweden,” Socialist Studies/Études Socialistes (Spring 2007): 5-25.
  27. Critchley, Peter. 2019. “Culturalism, Naturalism and Social Metabolism.” Monthly Review Essays (Online).
  28. Crook, Martin, and Damien Short. 2014. “Marx, Lemkin and the Genocide–Ecocide Nexus.” The International Journal of Human Rights 18 (3): 298–319. doi:10.1080/13642987.2014.914703.
  29. Dobrovolski, Ricardo. 2012 “Marx’s Ecology and the Understanding of Land Cover Change.” Monthly Review 64(1): 31–39.
  30. Dwarkasking, Chandni. 2019. “Rifts, Shifts and Intermissions in Modern Considerations on Marx and Ecology,” ResearchGate.
  31. Ergas, Christina, and Matthew Thomas Clement. 2015. “Ecovillages, Restitution, and the Political-Economic Opportunity Structure: an Urban Case Study in Mitigating the Metabolic Rift.” Critical Sociology. DOI: 10.1177/0896920515569085.
  32. Farahani, Ilia. 2013. “Vanished in Gaps, Vanquished in Rifts: the Social Ecology of Urban Spatial Change in a Working Class Residential Area, Peykan-Shahr, Tehran, Iran.” Journal of Political Ecology 20: 395–412.
  33. Feitosa, Raphael Alves Feitosa, Vivana Alves de Oliveira Feitosa, Natasha Alves Correia Lima, an dMaria Cleide de Silva Barrosa. “István Mészáros’s Contributions to Understanding of the Metabolic Rift: Initial Report for Critical Environmental Education,” Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies 17 (2): 56-87.
  34. Flaherty, Eoin. 2013. “Geographies of Communality, Colonialism, and Capitalism: Ecology and the World-System” Historical Geography 41.
  35. Foster, John Bellamy. 1999. “Marx’s Theory of Metabolic Rift: Classical Foundations for Environmental Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology 105 (2): 366–405.
  36. Foster, John Bellamy. 2011. “Capitalism and the Accumulation of Catastrophe,” Monthly Review 63(7): 1-17.
  37. Foster, John Bellamy. 2013. “Marx and the Rift in the Universal Metabolism of Nature.” Monthly Review 65(7): 1–19.
  38. Foster, John Bellamy. 2015. “The Great Capitalist Climacteric: Marxism and ‘System Change Not Climate Change’,” Monthly Review 67, no. 6 (November): 1-18.
  39. Foster, John Bellamy. 2016. “Marx as a Food Theorist,” Monthly Review 68(7): 1-22.
  40. Foster, John Bellamy and Paul Burkett. 2018. “Value Isn’t Everything,” Monthly Review 70(6): 1-17.
  41. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2016. “Marx’s Ecology and the Left.” Monthly Review 68(2): 1-25.
  42. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2018. “Marx and Alienated Speciesism.” Monthly Review 70(7): 1-20.
  43. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2018. “The Expropriation of Nature.” Monthly Review 69(10): 1-27.
  44. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2018. “The Robbery of Nature: Capitalism and the Metabolic Rift.” Monthly Review 7(3): 1-20.
  45. Foster, John Bellamy and Hannah Holleman. 2014. “The Theory of Unequal Ecological Exchange: a Marx-Odum Dialectic.” The Journal of Peasant Studies. 41 (2): 199–233.
  46. Foster, John Bellamy, Brett Clark, and Hannah Holleman. 2019. “Capitalism and Robbery: The Expropriation of Land, Labor, and Corporeal Life.” Monthly Review 71(7): 1-23.
  47. Foster, John Bellamy, Hannah Holleman, and Brett Clark. 2019. “Imperialism in the Anthropocene.” Monthly Review 71(3): 70-88.
  48. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2020. “The Rift of Éire.” Monthly Review 71(11): 1-11.v
  49. Foster, John Bellamy, Brian Napoletano, Brett Clark, and Pedro S. Urquijo. 2020. “Henri Lefebvre’s Marxian Ecological Critique: Recovering a Foundational Contribution to Environmental Sociology,” Environmental Sociology 6(1):31-41 (DOI: 10.1080/23251042.2019.1670892. [PDF]
  50. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2021. “The Capitalinian: The First Geological Age of the Anthropocene.” Monthly Review 73(4): 1-16.
  51. Foster, John Bellamy, Brett Clark, and Hannah Holleman. 2021. “Capital and the Ecology of Disease.” Monthly Review 73(2): 1-23.
  52. Foster, John Bellamy, Brett Clark, and Hannah Holleman. 2021. “Marx and the Commons.” Social Research: An International Quarterly 88(1): 1-30.
  53. Foster, John Bellamy and Brett Clark. 2022. “Socialism and Ecological Survival.” Monthly Review 74(3): 1-33.
  54. Foster, John Bellamy. 2022. “The Return of the Dialectics of Nature: The Struggle for Freedom as Necessity,” Isaac and Tamara Deutscher Memorial Prize Lecture, Historical Materialism 30 (2): 3-28.
  55. Foster, John Bellamy. 2023. “Engels and the Second Foundation of Marxism.” Monthly Review 75(2): 1-20.
  56. Friedman, Michael. 2018. “Metabolic Rift and the Human Microbiome,” Monthly Review 70, no. 3 (July-August 2018): 70-105.
  57. Graham, Nicolas J. 2015. “Ecological Forces of Production.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, Prepublication (January 8): 1–16. doi:10.1080/10455752.2014.994134.
  58. Gunderson, Ryan. 2011. “The Metabolic Rifts of Livestock Agribusiness.” Organization & Environment 24 (4): 404–422.
  59. Hargrove, Andrew. 2021. “The Global Water Crises: A Cross-National Analysis of Metabolic Rift Theory.” Journal of Political Ecology 28(1): 376-394.
  60. Hedlund, John, Stefano B. Longo, and Timothy P. Clark. 2022. “The Role of Distinction in Dialectical Analyses of Socioecology: Metabolic Rift, World Ecology, and Urban Political Ecology.” World Review of Political Economy 13(4): 449-475.
  61. Holleman, Hannah. 2015. “Method in Ecological Marxism,” Monthly Review
  62. Holleman, Hannah. 2016. “De-Naturalizing Ecological Disaster: Colonialism, Racism and the Global Dustbowl of the 1930s,” Journal of Peasant Studies 44(1): 1-27.
  63. Holleman, Hannah. 2018. “No Empires, No Dust Bowls: Ecological Disasters and the Lessons of History,” Monthly Review 70, no. 3 (July-August): 22-30.
  64. Huber, Matthew T, and Timothy Currie. 2007. “The Urbanization of an Idea: Imagining Nature Through Urban Growth Boundary Policy in Portland, Oregon.” Urban Geography 28 (8): 705–731.
  65. Huber, Matthew T. 2009. “Energizing Historical Materialism: Fossil Fuels, Space and the Capitalist Mode of Production.” Geoforum 40 (1): 105–115.
  66. Kawa, N.C., et. al. 2019. “Night Soil: Origins, Discontinuities, and Opportunities for Bridging the Metabolic Rift,” Ethnobiology Letters 10(1): 40-49.
  67. Klein, Naomi. 2012. “Capitalism vs. the Climate.” The Nation November 28th.
  68. Lewis, Quentin. 2014. “‘Manure Manufactories’: Materializing the Metabolic Rift in Nineteenth-Century Deerfield, Massachusetts.” International Journal of Historical Archaeology 18 (2): 242–258
  69. Longo, Stefano B. 2012. “Mediterranean Rift: Socio-Ecological Transformations in the Sicilian Bluefin Tuna Fishery.” Critical Sociology 38 (3): 417–436.
  70. Longo, Stefano B. and Brett Clark. 2016. “An Ocean of Troubles: Advancing Marine Sociology.” Social Problems63(4): 463-479.
  71. Longo, Stefano B., Ellinor Isgren, and Brett Clark. 2021. “Nutrient Overloading in the Chesapeake Bay: Structural Conditions in Poultry Production and the Socioecological Drivers of Marine Pollution.” Sociology of Development 7(4): 416-440.
  72. Loustaunau, Delores, Mauricio Betancourt, Brett Clark, and John Bellamy Foster. 2022. “Chinese Contract Labor, the Corporeal Rift, and Ecological Imperialism in Peru’s Nineteenth-Century Guano Boom.” Journal of Peasant Studies49(3): 511-535.
  73. Magdoff, Fred. 2011. “Ecological Civilization.” Monthly Review 62 (8): 1–25.
  74. Malm, Andreas. 2018. “In Defense of Metabolic Rift Theory.” Verso blog.
  75. Mancus, Philip. 2007. “Nitrogen Fertilizer Dependency and Its Contradictions.” Rural Sociology 72 (2): 269–288.
  76. Marks, Gregory. 2019. “Metabolic Monstrosities: Vampire Capital in the Anthropocene,” The Wasted World Blog.
  77. McClintock, Nathan. 2010. “Why Farm the City? Theorizing Urban Agriculture Through a Lens of Metabolic Rift.” Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 3 (2): 191–207.
  78. McGee, Julius, and Camila Alvarez. 2016. “Sustaining Without Changing: The Metabolic Rift of Certified Organic Farming.” Sustainability 8 (2): 115–127.
  79. McLaughlin, Darrell and Michael Clow. 2006. “Healing the Metabolic Rift between Farming and the Eco-system.” Socialist Studies 2(2): 5–25.
  80. McMichael, Philip. 2008. “Agro-Fuels, Food Security, and the Metabolic Rift.” Kurswechsel 3: 14–22.
  81. Moore, Jason W. 2000. “Environmental Crises and the Metabolic Rift in World-Historical Perspective.” Organization & Environment 13 (2): 123–57.
  82. Moore, Jason W. 2011. “Transcending the Metabolic Rift: A Theory of Crises in the Capitalist World-Ecology.” Journal of Peasant Studies 38 (1): 1–46.
  83. Napoletano, Brian M, Jaime Paneque-Gálvez, and Antonio Vieyra. “Spatial Fix and Metabolic Rift as Conceptual Tools in Land-Change Science.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 26, no. 4 (September 2015): 198–214. doi:10.1080/10455752.2015.1104706.
  84. Napoletano, Brian, John Bellamy Foster, Brett Clark, Pedro S. Urquijo, Michael K. McCall, and Jaime Paneque-Gálvez. 2019. “Making Space in Critical Environmental Geography for the Metabolic Rift.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers (first published online May 30, 2019): 1-18.
  85. Napoletano, Brian, Jaime Paneque-Gálvez, Yadira Méndez-Lemus, and Antonio Vieyra. “Geographical Rift in the Urban Periphery, and its Concrete Manifestations in Morelia, Mexico,” Journal of Latin American Geography 18, no. 1 (March 2019): 38-64.
  86. Napoletano, Brian, Pedro S. Urquijo, Jaime Paneque-Gálvez, Brett Clark, Richard York, Ivan Franch-Pardo, Yadira Méndez-Lemus, and Antonio Vieyra. 2018. “Has (even Marxist) Political Ecology Really Transcended the Metabolic Rift?Geoforum, June: 92-95.
  87. Napoletano, Brian M., Brett Clark, John Bellamy Foster, and Pedro S. Urquijo. 2020. “Sustainability and Metabolic Revolution in the Works of Henri Lefebvre.” World 1(3): 300-317. DOI: 10.3390/world1030021.
  88. Napoletano, Brian M., Brett Clark, John Bellamy Foster, and Pedro S. Urquijo. 2022. “Critical Geography’s Nature Problem and the Lefebvrian Ecological Dialectic.” Journal of Historical Geography 78: 35-44.
  89. Napoletano, Brian M., John Bellamy Foster, and Brett Clark. 2022. “Antinomies of Space and Nature or an Open Totality? Neil Smith and Henri Lefebvre on Nature and Society.” Human Geography 15(3): 245-258.
  90. Napoletano, Brian M., Pedro S. Urquijo, Brett Clark, and John Bellamy Foster. Forthcoming. “Henri Lefebvre’s Conception of Nature-Society in the Revolutionary Project of Autogestion.” Dialogues in Human Geography.
  91. Nascimento, Humberto Miranda. 2009. “Pioneiros Da Ecologia Política Agrária Contemporânea [The Pioneers of the Contemporary Agrarian Political Ecology].” Ambiente & Sociedade 12 (2). Secretaria Editorial da Revista Ambiente e Sociedade: 257–72. doi:10.1590/S1414-753X2009000200004. (Portuguese PDFEnglish translation.)
  92. Newell, Joshua P, and Joshua J Cousins. 2014. “The Boundaries of Urban Metabolism: Towards a Political–Industrial Ecology.” Progress in Human Geography, Prepublication (December 5): 1–27. doi:10.1177/0309132514558442.
  93. Niblett, Michael. 2011. “When you take thing out the earth and you en’t put nothing back’: Nature, Form, and the Metabolic Rift in Jan Carew’s Black Midas.” Journal of Commonwealth Literature 46 (2): 237–255.
  94. Parenti, Christian. 2014. “The 2013 ANTIPODE AAG Lecture: the Environment Making State: Territory, Nature, and Value.” Antipode, 1–20. doi:10.1111/anti.12134.
  95. Pellow, David, N. and Hollie Nyseth Brehm. 2013. “An Environmental Sociology for the Twenty-First Century.” Annual Review of Sociology 39: 229–250
  96. Prudham, Scott. 2009. “Pimping Climate Change: Richard Branson, Global Warming, and the Performance of Green Capitalism.” Environment and Planning A 41 (7): 1594–1613.
  97. Pungas, Lilian. 2019. “Food Self-Provisioning as an Answer to the Meabolic Rift: The Case of ‘Dacha Resilience’ in Estonia,” Journal of World Studies 68 (May): 75-86.
  98. Ramisch, Joshua J. 2016. “‘Never at Ease’: Cellphones, Multilocational Households, and the Metabolic Rift in Western Kenya,” Agriculture and Human Values 33(4): 979-995.
  99. Read, Daniel J. and Bilal Habib. 2022. “Hybrid Hilltops: Metabolism and the Ecology of Labor and Capital in Colonial Central India.” Journal of Peasant Studies doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2022.2080548.
  100. Royle, Camilla. 2019. “Marx and the Robbery of the Soil and the Worker,” International Socialism 163 (Summer).
  101. Saito, Kohei. 2015. “Reconstructing Marx’s Critique of Political Economy From His London Notebooks.” Monthly Review 67 (7): 57–61.
  102. Saito, Kohei. 2016. “Marx’s Ecological Notebooks.” Monthly Review 67 (9): 25–42.
  103. Salleh, Ariel. 2010. “Embodied Materialism in Action” (Interview). Polygraph 22: 183-200.
  104. Salleh, Ariel. 2010. “From Metabolic Rift to ‘Metabolic Value’: Reflections on Environmental Sociology and the Alternative Globalization Movement.” Organization & Environment 23 (2): 205–19.
  105. Sanderson, Matthew R, and R. Scott Frey. 2014. “From Desert to Breadbasket…to Desert Again? a Metabolic Rift in the High Plains Aquifer.” Journal of Political Ecology 21: 516–32.
  106. Sbicca, Joshua. 2013. “The Need to Feed: Urban Metabolic Struggles of Actually Existing Radical Projects.” Critical Sociology Online Preprint Oct.7 2013
  107. Schneider, Mindi and Philip McMichael. 2010. “Deepening, and repairing, the metabolic rift.” Journal of Peasant Studies 37 (3): 461–484.
  108. Slater, Eamonn, and Eoin Flaherty. 2009. “Marx on Primitive Communism: The Irish Rundale Agrarian Commune, Its Internal Dynamics and the Metabolic Rift.” Irish Journal of Anthropology 12 (2): 5–34.
  109. Slater, Eamonn, and Terrence McDonough. 2008. “Marx on Nineteenth-Century Colonial Ireland: Analysing Colonialism as a Dynamic Social Process.” Irish Historical Studies 36 (142): 153–72.
  110. Slater, Eamonn. “Marx on the Colonization of Irish Soil,” Maynooth University Social Science Institute Working Paper Series, no. 3 (January).
  111. Slater, Eamonn. 2018. “Marx on Colonial Ireland: A Dialectical Inquiry,” History of Political Thought 39, no. 4 (Winter): 719-748.
  112. Slater, Eamonn. 2013. “The Sprawling Global Lawns of the Emerald Isle: A Dialectical Unfolding.” Journal of Ecocriticism 5 (2): 1–21.
  113. Slavoj Zizek, “Where is the Rift?: Marx, Lacan, Capitalism, and Ecology,” The Philosophical Salon, January 20, 2020.
  114. Stuart, Diana, Ryan Gunderson, and Brian Petersen. 2020. “Carbon Geoengineering and the Metabolic Rift: Solution or Social Reproduction?Critical Sociology 46(7-8): 1233-1249.
  115. Wishart, Ryan. 2012.  “Coal River’s Last Mountain: King Coal’s Après moi le déluge Reign.Organization & Environment 25 (4): 470–85.
  116. Wittman, Hannah. 2009. “Reworking the Metabolic Rift.” Journal of Peasant Studies 36 (4): 805–826.
  117. York, Richard and Brett Clark. 2010. “Nothing New Under the Sun? The Old False Promise of New Technology.” Review: A Journal of the Fernand Braudel Center 33(2-3): 203-224.
  118. York, Richard, and Philip Mancus. 2009. “Critical Human Ecology.” Sociological Theory 27 (2): 122–149.
  119. York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz. 2003. “A Rift in Modernity? Assessing the Anthropogenic Sources of Global Climate Change with the STIRPAT Model.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23 (10): 31–51.
  120. York, Richard. 2009. “Metabolic Rift.” The Encyclopedia of Earth (Aug. 21). https://eoearthlive.wordpress.com (Accessed 10/15/2013).
  121. Yurchenko, Yuliya. 2020. “Humans, Nature, and Dialectical Materialism.” Capital & Class (Published June 24, 2020).
  122. Žižek, Slavoj. 2015. “Ecology Against Mother Nature: Review of Molecular Red by McKenzie Wark.” Verso Books. May 26. http://www.versobooks.com.

Book Chapters

  1. Bridge, Gavin. 2010. “Past Peak Oil: Political Economy of Energy Crises.” Pp. 207–324 in Global Political Ecology, edited by R. Peet, P. Robbins, and M. Watts.
  2. Campanile, Philip and Michael Watts. 2019. “Nature and Ecology.” Pp. 353-362 in The Bloomsbury Companion to Marx. Oxford: Bloomsbury.
  3. Clark, Brett and John Bellamy Foster. 2012, “Guano: The Global Metabolic Rift and the Fertilizer Trade.” Pp. 68-82 in Ecology and Power: Struggles over Land and Material Resources in the Past, Present and Future. London: Routledge.
  4. Clark, Brett and Richard York. 2012. “Techno-Fix: Ecological Rifts and Capital Shifts.” In Ecology and Power: Struggles over Land and Material Resources in the Past, Present and Future, Alf Hornborg, Brett Clark, and Kenneth Hermele, eds. London: Routledge, pp. 23-36.
  5. Clark, Brett and Stefano B. Longo. 2017. “Marxism and Ecology.” In Routledge Handbook of Marxian Economics, David M. Brennan, David Kristjanson-Gural, Catherine P. Mulder, and Erik K. Olsen, eds. London: Routledge, pp. 399-408.
  6. Clark, Brett, John Bellamy Foster, and Stefano B. Longo. 2019. “Metabolic Rifts and the Ecological Crisis.” Pp. 651-658 in The Oxford Handbook on Karl Marx. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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  8. Clark, Brett, John Bellamy Foster, and Daniel Auerbach. Forthcoming. “Substantive Inequality and the Alienated Metabolism of the Capital System.” In The Handbook of Inequality and the Environment, Michael Long, Michael Lynch, and Paul Stretesky, eds. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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  10. Dolenec, Danijela. 2019. “Ecology and Environmentalism,” Pp. 541-547 in The Bloomsbury Companion to Marx. Oxford: Bloomsbury.
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  13. Foster, John Bellamy, and Fred Magdoff. 2000. “Liebig, Marx, and the Depletion of Soil Fertility: Relevance for Today’s Agriculture.” Pp. 23–41 in Hungry For Profit, edited by Fred Magdoff, John Bellamy Foster, and Frederick H. Buttel. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  14. Foster, John Bellamy. 2020. “Ecology.” In The Marx Revival: Key Concepts and New Interpretations, Marcello Musto ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 177-96.
  15. Kudo, Hideaki. 2009. “Marx and the Environmental Problem.” Pp. 77–88 in Marx for the 21st Century, edited by Hiroshi Uchida. New York: Routledge.
  16. Lynch, Michael J., Paul B. Stretesky, Michael A. Long and Kimberly L. Barrett. 2020. “Expanding Treadmill of Production Analysis within Green Criminology by Integrating Metabolic Rift and Ecological Unequal Exchange Theories.” Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology, 2nd Edition, Nigel South and Avi Brisman eds. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge, pp. 79-94.
  17. McMichael, Philip. 2012. “In the Short Run Are We All Dead? A Political Ecology of the Development Climate.” Pp. 137–160 in The Longue Durée and World-Systems Analysis, edited by Richard E. Lee. New York: SUNY Press.
  18. Prew, Paul. 2019. “Sociopoiesis: Understanding Crisis in the Capitalist World-System through Complexity Sciences.” In The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, ed., Matt Vidal, Tony Smith, Tomás Rotta, and Paul Prew. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 607-28.


  1. Dockstader, Sue. 2012. “Engendering the Metabolic Rift: A feminist Political Ecology of Agrofuels.” Masters Thesis. John Bellamy Foster, Chair. Eugene: University of Oregon.
  2. Flaherty, Eoin. 2012. “Modes of Production, Metabolism and Resilience: Toward a Framework for the Analysis of Complex Social-Ecological Systems.” Doctoral Thesis. Dr. Eamonn Slater, Supervisor, Maynooth: Maynooth University.


* Comma is omitted for first author to follow proper naming convention: [surname] [given name].